An integrative look at SARS-CoV-2 (Review)
AuthorsOrtega Núñez, Miguel Ángel; Fraile Martínez, Óscar; García Montero, Cielo; García Gallego, Sandra; Sánchez Trujillo, Lara; [et al.]
IdentifiersPermanent link (URI): http://hdl.handle.net/10017/46750
Embargo end date2021-06-22
AffiliationUniversidad de Alcalá. Departamento de Cirugía, Ciencias Médicas y Sociales; Universidad de Alcalá. Departamento de Medicina y Especialidades Médicas; Universidad de Alcalá. Departamento de Química Orgánica y Química Inorgánica
International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 2020, v. 47, n. 2, p. 415-434
B2017/BMD‑ 3804 MITIC‑C M (Comunidad de Madrid); COVID‑19 UAH 2019/00003/016/001/023 (Universidad de Alcalá); European Development Regional Fund ‘A way to achieve Europe" (ERDF).
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Ortega et al, 2020
SARS‑CoV‑2 is a newly discovered member of the betacoronaviruses and the etiological agent of the disease COVID‑19. SARS‑CoV‑2 is responsible for the worldwide pandemic which has been taking place in 2020, and is causing a markedly higher number of infections and deaths compared to previous coronaviruses, such as SARS‑CoV or MERS‑CoV. Based on updated scientific literature, the present review compiles the most relevant knowledge of SARS‑CoV‑2, COVID‑19 and the clinical and typical responses that patients have exhibited against this virus, discussing current and future therapies, and proposing strategies with which to combat the disease and prevent a further global threat. The aggressiveness of SARS‑CoV‑2 arises from its capacity to infect, and spread easily and rapidly through its tight interaction with the human angiotensin‑converting enzyme 2 (ACE‑2) receptor. While not all patients respond in a similar manner and may even be asymptomatic, a wide range of manifestations associated with COVID‑19 have been described, particularly in vulnerable population groups, such as the elderly or individuals with other underlying conditions. The proper function of the immune system plays a key role in an individual's favorable response to SARS‑CoV‑2 infection. A hyperactivated response, on the contrary, could account for the more severe cases of COVID‑19, and this may finally lead to respiratory insufficiency and other complications, such as thrombotic or thromboembolic events. The development of novel therapies and vaccines designed to control and regulate a proper immune system response will be key to clinical management, prevention measures and effective population screening to attenuate the transmission of this novel RNA virus.
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